Robert Shave


School of Health and Exercise Sciences
Other Titles: Director
Phone: 250.807.9708

Graduate student supervisor

Research Summary

Shave's work examines the acute and chronic effects of exercise and/or environmental stress upon the heart.


Dr. Shave is known for his work examining the acute and chronic effects of exercise and/or environmental stress upon the heart. Using echocardiography and biomarkers Dr. Shave and his colleagues have provided insight to the beneficial and potentially negative effects of endurance exercise upon the heart, the influence of exercise on cardiac remodeling and the ventricular mechanics that underpin cardiac function in health and disease. Recently, Dr. Shave established the International Primate Heart Project to examine heart disease in great apes and to provide insight into the evolution of the human heart. Dr. Shave’s work will continue to combine comparative and experimental physiology approaches to further understand structural and functional cardiovascular adaptations to exercise in a range of populations with a specific focus on human evolution and the potential of cardiovascular mismatch disease.


Doctorate of Philosophy 1999–2003
University of Wolverhampton
PhD: The Impact of exercise duration and environmental conditions upon the incidence of exercise induced cardiac fatigue (EICF)

Master of Science, Human Performance, 1997-1999
Frostburg State University

Bachelor of Science, Honours, Sport Studies 1993-1996
University of Wolverhampton

Research Interests & Projects

Dr. Shave’s primary interests are in the acute and chronic effects of exercise upon the heart. This work involves studies examining patient populations (e.g. heart failure, spinal cord injury and cancer survivors) and also physiologically “interesting” healthy individuals (e.g. athletes, high altitude natives, pregnant women). Recently, his work has branched into the comparative physiology domain through the International Primate Heart Project ( This project has been set up to explore the causes of heart disease in great apes and to provide veterinary specialists with appropriate training and an evidence base from which to make clinical decisions. In addition data from this project is being used to explore the role of exercise in the evolution of the human heart. Dr. Shave has successfully supervised over 17 post-graduate students.

Since completing his PhD, Shave has published more than 160 peer-review articles.

Selected Publications & Presentations

For the most up-to-date listing of articles please visit:


    1. Stembridge M, Ainslie PN, Shave R. (2015) Short-term adaptation and chronic cardiac remodelling to high altitude in lowlander natives and Himalayan Sherpa. Exp Physiol.
    2. Weiner RB, DeLuca JR, Wang F, Lin J, Wasfy MM, Berkstresser B, Stöhr E, Shave R, Lewis GD, Hutter AM Jr, Picard MH, Baggish AL. (2015) Exercise-Induced Left Ventricular Remodeling Among Competitive Athletes: A Phasic Phenomenon. Circ Cardiovasc Imaging.
    3. McGregor G, Gaze D, Oxborough D, O’Driscoll J, Shave R. (2015) Reverse left ventricular remodelling – effect of cardiac rehabilitation exercise training in myocardial infarction patients with preserved ejection fraction. Eur J Phys Rehabil Med.
    4. Stembridge M, Ainslie PN, Shave R. (2015) Mechanisms underlying reductions in stroke volume at rest and during exercise at high altitude. Eur J Sport Sci.
    5. Jeffers R, Shave R, Ross E, Stevenson EJ, Goodall S. (2015) The effect of a carbohydrate mouth-rinse on neuromuscular fatigue following cycling exercise. Appl Physiol Nutr Metab.
    6. Utomi V, Oxborough D, Ashley E, Lord R, Fletcher S, Stembridge M, Shave R, Hoffman MD, Whyte G, Somauroo J, Sharma S, George K. (2015) The impact of chronic endurance and resistance training upon the right ventricular phenotype in male athletes. Eur J Appl Physiol.
    7. Stembridge M, Ainslie PN, Hughes MG, Stöhr EJ, Cotter JD, Tymko MM, Day TA, Bakker A, Shave RE. (2015) Impaired myocardial function does not explain reduced left ventricular filling and stroke volume at rest or during exercise at high altitude. J Appl Physiol.
    8. Atencia R, Revuelta L, Somauroo J, Shave R. (2015) Electrocardiogram reference intervals in clinically normal wild-born chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes). Am J Vet Res.
    9. Lord R, Somauroo J, Stembridge M, Jain N, Hoffman MD, George K, Jones H, Shave R, Haddad F, Ashley E, Oxborough D. (2015) The right ventricle following ultra-endurance exercise: insights from novel echocardiography and 12-lead electrocardiography. Eur J Appl Physiol.
    10. Stembridge M, Ainslie PN, Shave R. (2014) Short-term adaptation and chronic cardiac remodelling to high altitude in lowlander natives and Himalayan Sherpa. Exp Physiol.
    11. Black JM, Stöhr EJ, Shave R, Esformes JI. (2014) Influence of exercise training mode on arterial diameter: A systematic review and meta-analysis. J Sci Med Sport.
    12. Gibbons RS, Shave RE, Gall A, Andrews BJ. (2014) FES-rowing in tetraplegia: a preliminary report. Spinal Cord.
    13. Nio AQ, Stöhr EJ, Shave R. (2014) The female human heart at rest and during exercise: A review. Eur J Sport Sci.
    14. Utomi V, Oxborough D, Ashley E, Lord R, Fletcher S, Stembridge M, Shave R, Hoffman MD, Whyte G, Somauroo J, Sharma S, George K. (2014) Predominance of normal left ventricular geometry in the male ‘athlete’s heart’. Heart.
    15. Stembridge M, Ainslie PN, Hughes MG, Stöhr EJ, Cotter JD, Nio AQ, Shave R. (2014) Ventricular structure, function, and mechanics at high altitude: chronic remodelling in Sherpa vs. short-term lowlander adaptation. J Appl Physiol.
    16. Stohr E, Gonzalez-Alonso J, Bezodis I, Shave R. (2014) Left ventricular energetics: New insight into the plasticity of regional contributions at rest and during exercise.  American Journal of Physiology: Heart and Circulation.
    17. Shave R, Oxborough D, Somauroo J, Feltrer Y, Strike T, Routh A, Chapman S, Redrobe S, Thompson L, Unwin S, Sayers G, Murphy H, Rapoport G, Stohr E. (2014) Echocardiographic assessment of cardiac structure and function in great apes: A practical guide. International Zoo Yearbook.
    18. Utomi V, Oxborough D, Whyte GP, Somauroo J, Sharma S, Shave R, Atkinson G, George K. (2013) Systematic review and meta-analysis of training mode, imaging modality and body size influences on the morphology and function of the male athlete’s heart. Heart.
    19. George K, Whyte GP, Green DJ, Oxborough D, Shave RE, Gaze D, Somauroo J. (2012) The endurance athletes heart: acute stress and chronic adaptation. Br J Sports Med.
    20. Stohr EJ, Shave R. (2012) Left ventricular apical mechanics during ectopy in an asymptomatic athlete. Heart.
    21. Stohr EJ, McDonnell B, Thompson J, Stone K, Bull T, Houston R, Cockcroft J, Shave R. (2012) LV Mechanics in Humans with High Aerobic Fitness: Adaptation Independent of Structural Remodelling, Arterial Haemodynamics and Heart Rate. J Physiol.
    22. Shave R, Oxborough D. (2012) Exercise-induced cardiac injury: evidence from novel imaging techniques and highly sensitive cardiac troponin assays. Prog Cardiovasc Dis.
    23. Mehta R, Gaze D, Mohan S, Williams KL, Sprung V, George K, Jeffries R, Hudson Z, Perry M, Shave R. (2012) Post-Exercise Cardiac Troponin Release is Related to Exercise Training History. Int J Sports Med.
    24. West CR, Campbell IG, Shave RE, Romer LM. (2012) Effects of abdominal binding on cardiorespiratory function in cervical spinal cord injury. Respir Physiol Neurobiol.
    25. West CR, Campbell IG, Shave RE, Romer LM. (2012) Resting cardiopulmonary function in paralympic athletes with cervical spinal cord injury. Med Sci Sports Exerc.
    26. Oxborough D, Sharma S, Shave R, Whyte G, Birch K, Artis N, Batterham AM,George K. (2011) The Right Ventricle of the Endurance Athlete: The Relationship between Morphology and Deformation. J Am Soc Echocardiogr.
    27. Howatson G, Goodall S, Hill J, Brouner J, Gaze D, McHugh M, Shave R. (2011) Antioxidant supplementation does not attenuate exercise-induced cardiac troponin release. Int J Cardiol.
    28. Eijsvogels TM, Shave R, van Dijk A, Hopman MT, Thijssen DH. (2011) Exercise-induced cardiac troponin release: real-life clinical confusion. Curr Med Chem.
    29. Stohr EJ, Gonzalez-Alonso J, Shave R. (2011) Left ventricular mechanical limitations to stroke volume in healthy humans during incremental exercise. American Journal of Physiology: Heart and Circulation.
    30. West C, Campbell I, Shave R, Romer L. (2011) Cardiorespiratory function in Paralympic athletes with cervical spinal cord injury.  Medicine & Science in Sport & Exercise.
    31. Stohr E, Gonzalez-Alonso J, Shave R. (2011) Left ventricular mechanical limitations to stroke volume in healthy humans during incremental exercise. Am J Physiol.
    32. George KP, Warburton DE, Oxborough D, Scott JM, Esch BT, Williams K, Charlesworth S, Foulds H, Oxborough A, Hoffman MD, Shave R. (2011) Upper limits of physiological cardiac adaptation in ultramarathon runners. J Am Coll Cardiol.
    33. Lane A, Wilson M, Whyte G, Shave R. (2011) Physiological correlates of emotion-regulation during prolonged cycling performance.  Appl Psycophysiol.
    34. Oxborough D, Shave R, Warburton D, Williams K, Oxborough A, Charlesworth S, Foulds H, Hoffman MD, Birch K, George K. (2011) Dilatation and Dysfunction of the Right Ventricle Immediately Following Ultra-Endurance Exercise: Exploratory Insights from Conventional 2-Dimensional and Speckle Tracking Echocardiography. Circulation: Cardiovascular Imaging
    35. Stohr EJ, Gonzalez-Alonso J, Pearson J, Low DA, Ali L, Barker H, Shave R. (2011) Effects of graded heat stress on global left ventricular function and twist mechanics at rest and during exercise in healthy humans. Exp Physiol.
    36. Murrell CJ, Cotter JD, George K, Shave R, Wilson L, Thomas K, Williams MJ, Ainslie PN. (2011) Syncope is unrelated to supine and postural hypotension following prolonged exercise. Eur J Appl Physiol.
    37. Oxborough D, Birch K, Shave R, George K. (2010) “Exercise-induced cardiac fatigue”—a review of the echocardiographic literature. Echocardiography.
    38. Shave R, Baggish A, George K, Whyte G, Scharhag J, Wood M, Thompson P.  (2010) Exercise-induced Cardiac Troponin Elevation: Evidence, Mechanisms, and Implications.  Journal of American College of Cardiology
    39. Shave R, Ross P, Low D, George K, Gaze D. (2010) Cardiac Troponin I is released following high intensity short-duration exercise in healthy humans. International Journal of Cardiology
    40. Chan-Dewar F, Oxborough D, Shave R, Gregson W, Whyte G, Noakes T, George K. (2010) Evidence of increased electro-mechanical delay in the left and right ventricle after prolonged exercise. European Journal of Applied Physiology.
    41. George K, Naylor L, Whyte G, Shave R, Oxborough, Green D.  (2010) Diastolic function in healthy humans: Non-Invasive assessment and the impact of acute and chronic exercise. European Journal of Applied Physiology
    42. Eijsvogels T, George K, Shave R, Gaze D, Levine B, Hopman M, Thijssen D. (2010) Elevation in cardiac troponin after prolonged walking exercise: relation to subject characteristics and exercise factors.  American Journal of Cardiology
    43. Serrano-Ostáriz E, Terreros-Blanco JL, Legaz-Arrese A, George K, Shave R, Bocos-Terraz P, Álvarez-Izquierdo S, Bancalero JL, Echavarri JM, Quilez J, Aragonés MT, Carranza-García LE. (2009) The impact of exercise duration and intensity on the release of cardiac biomarkers. Scandinavian Journal of Medicine and Science in Sports
    44. Murrell C, Cotter JD, George K, Shave R, Wilson L, Thomas K, Williams MJ, Lowe T, Ainslie PN. (2009) Influence of age on syncope following prolonged exercise: differential responses but similar orthostatic intolerance. Journal of Physiology.
    45. Howatson G, McHugh MP, Hill JA, Brouner J, Jewell AP, van Someren KA, ShaveR, Howatson SA. (2009) Influence of tart cherry juice on indices of recovery following marathon running. Scand J Med Sci Sports.
    46. Shave R, George K, Whyte G, Middleton N, Hart E, Artis N, Oxborough D. (2009) A comparison of Doppler, tissue Doppler imaging and strain rate imaging in the assessment of post-exercise left ventricular function. Applied Physiology Nutrition and Metabolism.
    47. Oxborough D, Batterham AM, Shave R, Artis N, Birch KM, Whyte G, Ainslie PN, George KP. (2009) Interpretation of two-dimensional and tissue Doppler-derived strain (epsilon) and strain rate data: is there a need to normalize for individual variability in left ventricular morphology? European Journal of Echocardiography.
    48. Scott J, Esch B, Shave R, Warburton D, Gaze D, George K. (2009) Cardiovascular Consequences of completing a 100-mile Ultra-marathon. Medicine & Science in Sports & Exercise.
    49. Privett SE, George KP, Middleton N, Shave R, Whyte GP, Cable NT. (2008) The Effect of Prolonged Endurance Exercise upon Blood Pressure Regulation During a Post-Exercise Orthostatic Challenge. British Journal of Sports Medicine.
    50. Peng T, Ainslie PN, Cotter JD, Murrell C, Thomas K, Williams MJ, George K, Shave R, Rowley AB, Payne SJ. (2008) The effects of age on the spontaneous low-frequency oscillations in cerebral and systemic cardiovascular dynamics. Physiological Measurement.
    51. George K, Shave R, Oxborough D, Cable T, Dawson E, Artis N, Gaze D, Hew-Butler T, Sharwood K, Noakes T. (2008) left ventricular wall segment motion after ultra-endurance exercise in humans assessed by myocardial speckle tracking.  European Journal of Echocardiography.
    52. Ainslie P, Cotter J, Lucas S, Murrell C, Thomas K, Williams M, George K, Shave R, Atkinson G. (2008) Elevation in cerebral blood flow with aerobic fitness throughout healthy human aging.  Journal of Physiology.
    53. Middleton N, George K, Whyte G, Gaze D, Collinson P, Shave R. (2008) Cardiac Troponin T release is stimulated by moderate intensity exercise in healthy humans. Journal American College of Cardiology.
    54. Dawson E, Green D, Black M, Jones H, Hopkins N, Oxborough D, Gaze D, Shave R, Wilson M, George K, Whyte G. (2008) Changes in vascular and cardiac function after prolonged strenuous exercise in humans.  Journal of Applied Physiology.
    55. Ross E, Middleton N, Shave R, George K, McConnell A.  Changes in respiratory muscle and lung function following marathon running in man.  Journal of Sport Sciences.
    56. Shave R, George K, Whyte G, Hart E, Middleton N. (2008) Post-exercise changes in left ventricular function: the evidence so far. Medicine & Science in Sports & Exercise.
    57. Scharhag J, Shave R, George K, Kindermann W. (2008) Exercise associated increases in cardiac biomarkers. Medicine & Science in Sports & Exercise.
    58. George K, Shave R, Warburton D, Scharhag J, Whyte, G. (2008). Exercise and the Heart: Can you have too much of a good thing? Medicine & Science in Sports & Exercise.
    59. Batterham A, Shave R, Oxborough D, Whyte G, George K. (2008) Longitudinal plane colour tissue-Doppler myocardial velocities and their association with left ventricular length, volume, and mass in humans.  European Journal of Echocardiography.
    60. Whyte GP, Sheppard M, George K, Shave R, Wilson M, Prasad S, O’Hanlan R, Sharma S. (2008). Post-mortem evidence of idiopathic left ventricular hypertrophy and idiopathic interstitial myocardial fibrosis: Is exercise the cause? British Journal of Sports Medicine.
    61. Whyte GP, George K, Shave R, Middleton N, Nevill AM. (2007) Training induced changes in maximum heart rate. International Journal of Sports Medicine.
    62. Shave R, George KP, Atkinson G, Hart E, Middleton N, Whyte G, Gaze D, Collinson PO. (2007) Exercise-induced cardiac troponin T release: a meta-analysis. Medicine & Science in Sports & Exercise.
    63. O’Donovan, G, Shave, R. (2007) British adults’ views on the health benefits of moderate and vigorous activity.  Preventive Medicine.
    64. O’Driscoll J, Shave R, Cushion C. (2007) A National Health Service Hospital’s Cardiac rehabilitation programme: A qualitative analysis of provision. Journal of Clinical Nursing.
    65. Shave R, George K, Gaze D. (2007) The influence of exercise upon cardiac biomarkers: a practical guide for clinicians and scientists. Current Medicinal Chemistry.
    66. Hew-Butler T, Sharwood K, Boulter J, Collins M, Tucker R, Dugas J, Shave R, George K, Cable T, Verbalis JG, Noakes T. (2007) Dysnatremia Predicts a Delayed Recovery in Collapsed Ultramarathon Runners.  Clinical Journal of Sport Medicine.
    67. Whyte GP, Stephens N, Senior R, George KP, Shave R, Wilson M, Sharma S. (2007) Treat the patient not the blood test: The implications of an elevation in cardiac troponin following prolonged endurance exercise.  British Journal of Sports Medicine.
    68. Simpson RJ, Florida-James GD, Whyte GP, Middleton N, Shave R, George K, Guy K. (2007) The effects of marathon running on expression of the complement regulatory proteins CD55 (DAF) and CD59 (MACIF) on red blood cells. European Journal of Applied Physiology.
    69. Middleton N, Shave R, George K, Whyte G, Hart E, Oxborough D, Forster J, Gaze D. (2007) Altered left ventricular diastolic filling following a marathon is a reproducible phenomenon. International Journal of Cardiology.
    70. Hart E, Shave R, Middleton N, George K, Whyte G, Oxborough D. (2007) Effect of preload augmentation on pulsed wave and tissue Doppler echocardiographic indices of diastolic function after a marathon. Journal of American Society of Echocardiography.
    71. Middleton N, Shave R, George K, Whyte G, Simpson R, Florida-James G, Gaze D. (2007) Impact of repeated prolonged exercise bouts on cardiac function and biomarkers. Medicine & Science in Sports & Exercise.
    72. Dawson EA, Shave R, Whyte G, Ball D, Selmer C, Jans O, Secher NH, George KP. (2007) Preload maintenance and the left ventricular response to prolonged exercise in men. Experimental Physiology.
    73. Ross EZ, Middleton N, Shave R, George K, Nowicky A. (2007) Corticomotor excitability contributes to neuromuscular fatigue following marathon running in man. Experimental Physiology.
    74. Hart E, George K, Dawson E, Whyte G, Secher N, Shave R. (2006) β-adrenergic receptor desensitisation in man: Insight into post-exercise attenuation of cardiac function. Journal of Physiology.
    75. Hassan MY, Noakes TD, Berlyn P, Shave R, George K. (2006) Preload maintenance protects against a depression in left ventricular systolic, but not diastolic, function immediately after ultra-endurance exercise. British Journal of Sports Medicine.
    76. Middleton N, Shave R, George K, Whyte G, Forster J, Oxborough D, Gaze D, Collinson P. (2006) Novel application of flow propagation velocity and ischaemia-modified albumin in analysis of postexercise cardiac function in man. Experimental Physiology.
    77. Oxborough D, Shave R, Middleton N, Whyte G, Forster J, George K. (2006) The impact of marathon running upon ventricular function as assessed by 2-D, Doppler and Tissue-Doppler echocardiography. Echocardiography.
    78. George K, Shave R, Oxborough D, Whyte G, Dawson E. (2006) Longitudinal and radial systolic myocardial tissue velocities after prolonged exercise.  Applied Physiology Nutrition & Metabolism.
    79. Middleton N, Shave R, George K, Whyte G, Hart E, Atkinson G. (2006) Left ventricular function immediately following prolonged exercise: A meta-analysis. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise.
    80. Lane A, Whyte G, Shave R, Stevens M, Barney S, Wilson M, Terry P. (2005) Mood disturbance during intense exercise at altitude: effects of self-esteem and coping styles. Athletic Insight.
    81. George K, Oxborough D, Forster J, Whyte G, Shave R, Dawson E, Stephenson C, Dugdill L, Edwards B. (2005) Mitral annular myocardial velocity assessment of segmental left ventricular diastolic function after prolonged exercise in humans. Journal of Physiology.
    82. Shave R, Whyte G, George K, Gaze D, Collinson P. (2005) Prolonged exercise should be considered alongside typical symptoms of AMI when evaluating elevations in cardiac troponin T. Heart.
    83. Stephenson C, McCarthy J, Vikelis E, Shave R, Whyte G, Gaze D, George K. (2005) Effect of weightlifting upon left ventricular function and markers of cardiomyocyte damage. Ergonomics.
    84. Van Someren K, Howatson G, Nunan D, Thatcher R, Shave R. (2005) Comparison of the Lactate Pro and Analox GM7 blood analysers. International Journal of Sports Medicine.
    85. Dawson E, Shave R, George K, Whyte G, Ball D, Gaze D, Collinson P. (2005) Cardiac drift during prolonged exercise with echocardiographic evidence of reduced diastolic function of the heart. European Journal of Applied Physiology.
    86. Whyte G, George K, Shave R, Dawson E, Stephenson C, Edwards B, Gaze D, Oxborough D, Forster J, Simspon R. (2005) Impact of marathon running on cardiac structure and function in recreational runners.  Clinical Scence.
    87. Lane A, Whyte G, Shave R, Barney S, Stevens M, Wilson M. (2005) Mood disturbance during cycling performance at extreme conditions. Journal of Sports Science and Medicine.
    88. George K, Whyte G, Stephenson C, Shave R, Dawson E, Edwards B, Gaze D, Collinson P. (2004) Post-exercise left ventricular function and cTnT in recreational marathon runners. Medicine & Science in Sport & Exercise.
    89. Shave R, Dawson E, Whyte G, George K, Nimmo M, Layden J, Collinson P, Gaze D. (2004) The impact of prolonged exercise in a cold environment upon cardiac function. Medicine & Science in Sport & Exercise.
    90. Whyte G, Nevill A, George K, Shave R, Sharma S, McKenna W. (2004) Left ventricular morphology and function in female athletes: A meta-analysis.  International Journal of Sports Medicine.
    91. Shave R, Dawson E, Whyte G, George K, Gaze D, Collinson P. (2004) Altered cardiac function and minimal cardiac damage during prolonged exercise.  Medicine & Science in Sport & Exercise.
    92. George K, Dawson E, Shave R, Whyte G, Jones M, Hare E, Gaze D, Collinson P. (2004) Left ventricular systolic function and diastolic filling after intermittent high-intensity team sports sports. British Journal of Sports Medicine.
    93. Whyte G, Stephens N, Budgett R, Sharma S, Shave R, McKenna W. (2004) Exercise induced neurally mediated syncope in an elite rower: a treatment dilemma. British Journal of Sports Medicine.
    94. Shave R, Dawson E, Whyte G, George K, Gaze D, Collinson P. (2004) Effect of prolonged exercise in a hypoxic environment on cardiac function and cardiac troponin T. British Journal of Sports Medicine.
    95. Whyte G, Stephens N, Budgett R, Sharma S, Shave R, McKenna W. (2004) Spontaneous Atrial Fibrillation in a Freestyle Skier.  British Journal of Sports Medicine.
    96. Dawson E, Shave R, Whyte G, George K, Ball D. (2003) Does the heart fatigue subsequent to prolonged exercise in humans? Sports Medicine.
    97. Shave R, Dawson E, Whyte G, George K, Ball D, Gaze D, Collinson P.  (2003) Cardiac troponin T in female athletes during a two-day mountain marathon.  Scottish Medical Journal.
    98. Shave R, Dawson E, Whyte G, George K, Ball D, Gaze D, Collinson P. (2002) Evidence of exercise-induced cardiac dysfunction and elevated cTnT in separate cohorts competing in an ultra-endurance mountain marathon race. International Journal of Sports Medicine.
    99. Shave R, Dawson E, Whyte G, George K, Gaze D, Collinson P. (2002) The cardiospecificity of the third-generation cTnT assay after exercise-induced muscle damage. Medicine & Science in Sport & Exercise.
    100. Shave R, Whyte G, Siemann A, Doggart, L. (2001) The effects of sodium citrate upon 3-km run time-trial performance.  Journal of Strength training and Conditioning Research.



Apologies, but no results were found.